*Dedication*

*Acknowledgments*

*About the Author*

*Preface*

*Foreword by *Spencer P. Thornton, MD, FACS

*Foreword by* Dan Z. Reinstein, MD, MA(Cantab), FRCSC, DABO,

FRCOphth, FEBO

*Introduction*

Chapter 1 Astigmatism in the Population

Chapter 2 History of Vectorial Analysis of Astigmatism

Chapter 3 A Dilemma: The Conflict Between Incisional and Laser Ablative Approaches

Chapter 4 The Genesis: A Method to the Madness

Chapter 5 The Nonzero Target and Why It Meets Ongoing Resistance

Chapter 6 The Basics of the Alpins Method

Chapter 7 The Astigmatic Indices: Useful Measures That Make It All Worthwhile

Chapter 8 The Flattening, Steepening, and Rotation of Astigmatism

Chapter 9 Ocular Residual Astigmatism: When Zero Is Not the Target

Chapter 10 For Cataract Patients With Astigmatism: Toric Intraocular Lenses

Chapter 11 Analysis and Management of ¡°Refractive Surprises¡±

After Toric Intraocular Lens Implantation

Chapter 12 Corneal Topographic Astigmatism:

A Measure of Anterior and Total Corneal Power

Chapter 13 Vector Planning Approach: Optimizing Both

Corneal and Refractive Astigmatism

Chapter 14 Corneal Astigmatism: Less Is More

Chapter 15 Not Everyone Has Regular Astigmatism: The Hemidivisional Solution

Chapter 16 Topographic Disparity: Quantifying Corneal Irregularity

Chapter 17 The Perfect Treatment: Reduction and Regularization

Chapter 18 Polar Displays Versus

Double-Angle Vector Diagrams

Chapter 19 Clinical Application of the Alpins Method for Clinical Studies

Chapter 20 Regulatory Adoption

Chapter 21 Coupling Concepts

Chapter 22 Mixed Astigmatism

Chapter 23 How to Perform Your Own Corneal and Refractive Vector Analyses

Chapter 24 Software: ASSORT, iASSORT,

Web Calculators, VECTrAK

Appendix Astigmatic Terms and Concepts

Financial Disclosures

Index